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Friday, March 29, 2019

Little Red Riding Hood








French author Charles Perrault published Little Red Riding Hood (Le Petit Chaperon Rouge) in Mother Goose Tales (1697). This fantastic little story portrays a voracious Wolf that devoured    Little Red Riding Hood and her grandmother, ending the story.

While the brothers Grimm version called, Little Red Cap included a passing huntsman that cuts open the wolf’s stomach and pulls Little Red Riding Hood and her Grandmother to safety.


One of the first versions originated back in the 10th century, to the folktale from Italy, called, The False Grandmother, by Italo Calvino–published in the Italian Folktales collection. The range of interpretations range from being a warning about talking to strangers to that of sexual restraint, however, I will interpret the story from a metaphysical point of view.

  In Grimm’s version, her mother asked Little Red Cap to stay strictly on the path through the woods to deliver food to her sickly grandmother (wine and cake depending on the translation). voracious Wolf wants to eat the girl. He secretly stalks her behind trees, bushes, shrubs. He approaches Little Red Riding Hood, who naively tells him where she is going. He suggests that the girl pick flowers as a present for her grandmother, which she does. In the meantime, he goes to the grandmother's house and gains entry by pretending to be the Little Red Cap. He swallows the grandmother whole (in some stories; he locks her in the closet) and waits for the girl, disguised as the grandma.

When the Little Red arrives, she notices that her grandmother looks very strange. The Wolf, seeing her come in, said to her, hiding under the bedclothes:—

"Put the custard and the little pot of butter upon the stool and come and lie down with me." Little Red Riding-hood undressed and went into bed, where she was much surprised to see how her grandmother looked in her night-clothes.

She said to her:—

 "Grandmamma, what great arms you have got!"

"That is the better to hug thee, my dear."

"Grandmamma, what great legs you have got!"

 "That is to run the better, my child."

"Grandmamma, what great ears you have got!"

"That is to hear the better, my child."

"Grandmamma, what great eyes you have got!"

"It is to see the better, my child."

"Grandmamma, what great teeth you have got!"

"That is to eat thee up."

And, saying these words, this wicked wolf fell upon Little Red Riding-hood and ate her all up.


 A Huntsman in the Brothers Grimm and traditional German versions, comes to the rescue with an ax, and cuts open the sleeping wolf. Little Red Cap and her grandmother emerge unharmed. Then they fill the wolf's body with heavy stones. The wolf awakens and attempts to flee, but the stones cause him to collapse and die. Sanitized versions of the story have the grandmother locked in the closet instead of being eaten and some have Little Red Riding Hood saved by the lumberjack as the wolf advances on her rather than after she gets eaten, where the woodcutter kills the wolf with his ax.(2)

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I N T E R P R E T A T I O N

 



The best method to analyze Little Red Riding Hood or Little Red Cap depends on decoding the iconography regarding the ancients’ metaphysical beliefs that rested on the principle of the human soul is immortal and incarnates into the earth plane to evolve.  

The child,  symbolizes the human psyche or soul that must take the “trodden path”, through the dark forest, (collective subconscious) and meet the big bad wolf - the antagonist symbolizing the world of the senses, chaos, and evil. The wolf swallows her up, just like the body encases by the soul, losing all contact to the divine. However, the Huntsman cuts open the wolf’s stomach, rescuing her from death. Therefore, Little Red Riding is born again and initiated into a new life.  

The story begins with her mother’s advice to follow the “trodden path.” This is a common expression, to “follow the path,” which in most instances refers to spiritual practices.

Religions advise service to others and to God as the best practice leading to salvation. Little Red Riding Hood received the same advice; help her grandmother, by delivering food and drink. 

The ancient Sages also advised their followers to find the middle path, between extremes of conduct, of self-indulgence and religiosity.


Here the Buddhist saying reiterates the concept:
“The Tathagata does not seek salvation
In austerities, but neither does he for that reason
indulge in worldly pleasures, nor live in abundance.
The Tathagata has found the middle path.”

….“There are two extremes, O Bhikkus,
which the man has given up the world ought not follow-
the habitual practice on the one hand, of self - indulgence,
which is unworthy, vain and fit only for the
worldly minded – the habitual practice, on the other hand,
of self-mortification, which is painful, useless and unprofitable.

…” A middle path, O Bhikkus avoiding the two extremes
Has been discovered by Tathagata–a path which opens the eyes
And bestows understanding, which leads
to peace of mind, to the higher wisdom,
To full enlightenment.

  Life flows easily when serving the establishment. Take one step out of the social constructs, religious or cultural, and all hell breaks loose. Ask Socrates or Christ who both died for their beliefs. So the resistance Little Red Riding Hood endures on the path is a universal process that all the great geniuses and initiates must overcome. 

However, the opposing forces of materialization are likewise part of all the divine, as light and darkness always arrive together, so one must integrate the subconscious shadow, within our own psyche. 

For example, Beauty fears the Beast but ends up marrying him, while in the Frog Prince the young maiden marries an ugly frog. The point being the shadow only looks ugly, as it wears the face of one’s sins - our hidden fears and psychological complexes. After living with these unpleasant parts of the self, they will disappear, like the night disappears when the sun rises.
Saying to ponder: 
  
Becoming enlightened rests on this eternal truth,
 Everything that exists is part of the Divine.

THE WICKED WOLF

      Being the epitome of materialism, the wolf entices Little Red Riding Hood to pick flowers, by noting the beautiful colors and fragrances.  The wolf runs to grandmother’s house for a tasty appetizer, a preview of the main course, if Little Red Riding Hood continues to put pleasure before her duty to help others. This episode reflects on the character of the psyche/soul, which starts off naïve, inexperienced and unable to distinguish between good and evil. As she offers the wolf everything he hoped for: a direct route to dinner at Grandma’s house. (At least she didn’t give him the key to the house.)

Little Red Riding Hood must develop both the masculine and feminine aspects of her psyche as a precondition to becoming self-realized and enlightened. In psychological terms, she is searching to find a balance between the feminine and masculine, or subtle energies of the Ida and Pingala, or the archetypal gods of Shakti and Shiva. The goal is to integrate the individualized soul with the Divine, without giving up one's identity.

She already has a mother that loves her, which denotes a well-evolved feminine side positively oriented. However, her inner male needs work - she has just as a docile father in Cinderella denotes the same condition. Little Red Riding Hood starts on the spiritual path with no conscious knowledge of her male energy: a lack that attracts her to the worst type of man-wolf.


INCARNATION OF THE SOUL


  There are other fairy tales and myths in which an animal swallows a man, who later returns to the world of the living. Pinocchio comes to mind, as does Jonah and the Whale. In Pinocchio, Monstro the whale swallowed his father Geppetto. When Pinocchio discovers his father, he jumps in the water to save him; thus washing away his curse and transforming him into a real boy. Here again, we have the motif of being swallowed by an animal, (symbolizing the materialization of spirit) and an allegorical rebirth when Pinocchio achieves boyhood.   

In another example, the scriptural Jonah refused to follow God’s orders to preach to the people of Nineveh, boards a ship to Tarshish which becomes battered by a storm. He orders the ship’s crew to cast him overboard, whereupon a giant whale swallows Jonah. While in the whale’s belly, he prays to God for help, and three days later, after Jonah agrees to travel to Nineveh, the fish vomits him out onto the shore. His refusal amounts to placing his own comfort before duty to God, (analogous to Little Red Riding Hood picking flowers), and like Little Red Riding Hood departs from the belly of the Beast uninjured.


THE MATTER OF THE WOLF

 Proving the wolf symbolizes chaos, death and matter is a simple procedure of reviewing ancient mythology. We can start with the Greek myth of Chronos (Saturn in Roman mythology). 

Cronos learned from Gaia and Uranus one of his own children would usurp his rule, just as he had overthrown his father. As a result, although he sired the Titan gods Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Hades and Poseidon by Rhea, he devoured them all as soon as they were born to prevent the prophecy. When the sixth child, Zeus, was born Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save them and to get retribution on Cronos for his acts against his father and children….. In other versions of the tale, Metis gave Cronos an emetic to force him to disgorge the children. [4]

The myth follows the same pattern: a beast swallows a child, but it doesn’t die and returned to the world of the living.  Chronos represent the world of time and matter that embodies the spirit,

In addition, alchemical texts denote the wolf as the patron animal of the planet Saturn, the Roman equivalent of Cronus. According to alchemical philosophy, ores are formed inside the earth and transform from the most corrupted form of lead to the most purified form of gold. So the alchemical symbolism starts with (lead, Saturn, wolf, the most impure and corrupted form of metals) which will eventually transform into gold, symbolized by Little Red Riding Hood. 

Anubis is one of the many extraordinary animal deities in ancient Egyptian art and myth.   In the early dynastic period, the Egyptians portrayed him as a black wolf or Golden jackal. Associated with mummification, he protected their bodies from destruction. In the Osiris legend, Anubis weighed the heart of the deceased, against a feather, to judge the soul’s worthiness before he guided the soul to the afterlife. The death of Little Red Riding Hood and her subsequent return to life follows the Egyptian pattern in which a wolf was instrumental in the rebirth of a soul. Though Anubis doesn’t kill any Egyptian, he helps Osiris by guiding worthy souls to the hereafter

There are other references to a wolf in Norse myth, and the fairy tales such as “The Three Little Pigs” and “The Wolf and the Seven Young Kids. “And in each case, the wolf symbolizes chaos and death. Besides these examples, the clearest sign the wolf symbolizes such negative attributes of the material world, and animal desires derive from the different questions Little Red Riding Hood asks. 




Each question refers to one of the five senses. 

She notices the wolf’s ears - A sense of hearing. 

“What big eyes you have!” - A sense of vision. 

“What big hands you have.” - A sense of feel. 

 “Oh, what a horribly big mouth you have!” - A sense of taste. 
    
She derives each question from a growing awareness; it is her consciousness or soul, that sees, hears and feels. And that her senses have led her to a false perception of reality, as she now sees through the wolf’s disguise–a little too late—but she wakes up to the truth. 

ACADEMIC INTERPRETATIONS

 Bruno Bettelheim in his book, The Uses of Enchantment, explores Little Red Riding Hood from the perspective of Freudian psychoanalysis, and explains how fairy “tales educate, support, and liberate children’s emotions.  He views her decision to pick flowers in terms of an immature child that puts pleasure before responsibility.

The central theme deals with the problems of sexual maturity a young girl must face, particularly her loss of virginity.  

He further proposes Little Red Riding Hood too immature to acknowledge her oedipal complex. (The Oedipus complex refers to a child’s unconscious sexual desire for the same-sex parent and hatred for the opposite-sex parent.) - A rather dubious claim since no Father appears in the story. 

I believe Bruno’s interpretation misses the whole point that being swallowed up by the wolf is inevitable, as it denotes the incarnation of the soul into the material world. There are many sexual overtones in other versions of Hood Riding Hood that need further explanation including the portrayal of the wolfs’ sexual proclivity, 

Perrault gives evidence of this at the end of Little Red Riding Hood when he writes the moral of the story is:   

“From this story, one learns that children, especially young lasses, pretty, courteous and well-bred, do very wrong to listen to strangers and it is not an unheard thing if the Wolf is thereby provided with his dinner. I say, Wolf, for all wolves, are not of the same sort; there is one kind with an amenable disposition—neither noisy, nor hateful, nor angry, but tame, obliging and gentle, following the young maids in the streets, even into their homes. Alas! Who does not know that these gentle wolves are of all such creatures the most dangerous! 

 This warning assumes the wolf symbolizes the aggressive sexuality of the carnal man, thus re-imagining the story as a warning against sexual activity outside of marriage. 

Professor Jack Zipes, the author of some sixty books on fairy tales, applies a deconstructionist perspective and interprets the main theme as originating from the French patriarchal rape culture, that attempted to socialize young women for marriage. In his book “The Trials and Tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood ”, he states the “very act of eating Little Red Riding Hood is sexual, and must in some degree show the chaos inherent within nature. Zipes interpretation makes more sense when we take into consideration another French version of Little Red Riding Hood called “The Grandmother” 

In this version, a bzou (Werewolf), kills, quarters and eats the grandmother and places her blood and flesh in glass jars. When Little Red Riding Hood arrives, he tells her to drink and eat from the jars in the cupboard. 

 Finally, the bzou tells her to; 

 “Get undressed, my child,” and come to bed with me." 

“Where should I put my apron?” 

“Throw it into the fire. You won’t need it anymore.” 

And for all her clothes — her bodice, her dress, her petticoat, and her shoes and stockings — she asked where she should put them, and the wolf replied, “Throw them into the fire, my child. You won’t need them anymore.” 

There is no doubt; this bawdy scene emphasizes the sexuality of her encounter with the bzou. Zipes notes that the French culture viewed Little Red Riding Hood as the guilty party for talking to the wolf in the first place, based on the French bourgeois belief it was a natural tendency of women to be undisciplined and easily swayed by temptation. So, from his perspective of seventeenth-century France, it was Little Red Riding Hood’s fault for being swallowed and raped. Thus according to the cultural Marxist perspective, fairy tales became a tool in the socialization of French and German society and later all of Western society, that seeks to educate children so they could fit into male-dominated patriarchy. 


Summary

 There are three philosophies in this article used to interpret Little Red Riding Hood. The spiritual interpretation I have presented and the psychoanalytical approach, and cultural Marxist perspective. 

  The Freudian approach makes too many unprovable assumptions about the pre-teen psyche and then tries to apply Oedipus complex to the world’s great literature. No doubt there are sexual overtones to the story, as Zipes has proved. However, he proposes it is because of the West's dominant patriarchal culture. Now his viewpoint is valid only if we interpret the tale literally and not symbolically. 

The main theme could be, as many suggest, a warning to young women to be on guard against immoral sexuality. I could accept this as a limited truth but nested within the concept of a spiritual transformation that requires chastity, purity and a love of god, as the fairy tale depicts Little Red Riding Hood as following a spiritual path leading to rebirth.




Copyright Joseph Alexander 3/29/2019 11:11am

Notes:


2. Spurgeon, Maureen (1990). Red Riding Hood. England: Brown Watson. ISBN 0709706928.
2.Zipes, Jack, The Trials and Tribulations of Little Red Riding Hood.
   Published 1993 By Routledge Taylor & Francis Group
   270 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016

3.Bettelheim, Bruno, The Uses of Enchantment: The Meaning and Importance of Fairy Tales, Random House LLC

.Little Red Riding Hood, By Charles Perrault 
<https://www.gutenberg.org/files/17208/17208-h/17208-h.htm#LITTLE_RED_RIDING-HOOD> 


4. Images from Pixabay.



Wednesday, December 5, 2018

The Hidden Meaning of Iron John





 Iron John“Iron Hans” in German, is a fascinating fairy tale written by the brothers Grimm. The story reveals the masculine power hidden in the unconscious shadow with some interesting symbolism, such as a shinning golden ball, a dark forest, a wild man, and an innocent young prince

This tale held the public’s attention in the 1990s because of the poet and philosopher Robert Bly’s book, Iron John: A Book about Men, which shaped the Men’s Movement in the early 1990s. In fact, the book lasted 62 weeks on The New York Times Best Sellers list. Robert Bly interpreted the central theme to be man’s search for meaning in a world that considered them as disposable. He also explored the deep issues arising from the different role models expected of men and women. 

 Summary of Iron John

A King sends his Huntsman into the depths of a nearby forest, but they never return. The King sends more men to explore the territory, each meeting with the same unknown fate. Finally, an extensive hunting party ventures out only to disappear in the looming darkness… The King finally declares the territory too treacherous for adventurers and announces it off-limits.

Some years later, a wandering explorer hears of the trouble and asks the King for his approval to travel to the area, asserting he would figure out the fate of the missing Huntsmen.

The man, accompanied by his dog, penetrates the darkened forest and happens upon a hidden lake. A giant arm breaks the surface water and drags his poor dog underwater. The hunter returns to the King for reinforcements, and with a group of men empties the lake. At the bottom, lays a naked man with long shaggy hair all over his body and iron like skin. They capture the wild man and lock him in a cage, only to display him as a curiosity in the King’s courtyard. The King declares any person that frees him will be put to death.




Many years pass until one day when the young prince was playing in the courtyard. And drops his favorite plaything, a golden ball which rolls right to the iron cage. The wild man picks it up. He tells the boy prince to set him free if he wants his golden ball returned.

However, the only key to the cage is beneath his mother’s pillow.

Though the Prince hesitates, he finds enough courage to sneak into his Mother’s room and steal the key. Then frees the wild man, who reveals his name to be Iron John. The young prince, fearing the king will kill him, follows Iron John back to his kingdom in the dark forest.

Iron John is a powerful being that guards many hidden treasures. He proposes the young Prince to watch over a crystal clear spring, cautioning him not to let anything touch the water or it will turn to gold.

The prince struggles to obey, but plays near the spring, and lets his long hair touch the water, which transforms into a brilliant gold color. Disappointed at the boy’s failure, Iron John sends him out to experience the cruel medieval world of war, poverty, and sickness. However, Iron John further tells the prince that if he ever needs help, return to the forest and call out his name three times.

  
 The prince travels to a distant land and finds a job working in the kitchen of the King. The prince refuses to remove his cap in the king’s presence because he wants to hide his brilliant golden hair. He losses his job but ends up assisting the gardener. The princess finds the boy's golden hair fascinating. While her intuition whispers there is something more to him than a poor gardener. 

When war comes, the prince sees his chance to make a name for himself. He returns to the forest and calls out for Iron John three times. Iron John arrives and gives him a horse, armor, and a legion of iron warriors to fight beside him. The prince successfully defends his new homeland. Then secretly returns Iron Johns’ horse and armor before returning to the castle.  

In celebration of the great victory, the King announces a banquet and offers his daughter’s hand in marriage to any knight that catches a golden apple thrown into their midst. Hoping the mysterious knight will reveal his identity for such a grand prize. 

Again the Prince asks Iron John for help. And Iron John disguises him as the black mysterious knight. The prince catches the golden apple and escapes from the crowd of onlookers. But the King and Princess eventually discover his true royal ancestry. And the young prince marries the princess.  

Iron John appears at the wedding transformed,  without his shaggy hair or iron skin. He reveals an enchantress had cast a spell that transformed him into an iron skinned Beast but only until the time, when someone with a pure heart, like the young prince,  could free him. - The End. 







 INTERPRETATION


The “childlike protagonist” in fairy tales symbolizes the immortal soul or psyche. The task, of the “child”, is to evolve into a self-realized individual, a process that takes many lifetimes. That being said, Iron John follows a typical pattern of the great classic fairy tales - Whereas the psyche (the young Prince) begins the quest, inexperienced and naïve, conquers many obstacles, and adverse forces explore its subconscious shadow (Iron John), which transmutes the mind raising consciousness. 



Iron John, a wild man with rough iron like skin - describes the intense nature of masculine energy hidden in the male psyche. As a symbol of the unexplored and violent aspects of the untamed consciousness, Iron John murdered every huntsman near his territory. One might say his persona depicts the subconscious animalistic drives that operate from the lowest level of survival instinct–using violence instead of intelligence.

The inevitable encounter with the shadow plays a central part in the process of individuation. Jung considered that “the course of individuation... exhibits a certain formal regularity. Its signposts and milestones are various archetypal symbols” marking its stages, and of these “the first stage leads to the experience of the shadow. In Jungian psychology, the “shadow”, may refer to everything a person is not conscious of. The shadow represents the “dark side” of the mind which rejects the least desirable aspects of one’s personality. (Note: that Iron John survives underwater in a deserted forest - as ‘water’ and ‘the dark forest’ are metaphors of the collective unconscious.) 

At the beginning of the story, Iron John is the adversary; however, by the end, he becomes the princes’ counsel and helps him to become a man. Iron John’s masculine traits can pass on to the young prince, only if he accepts the rules, as the powers are symbolic of the talents, happiness and bliss one receives after overcoming their errors. In fact, any denial of one’s faults results in the virtual death of the psyche, and creativity. So the prince has to address his own problems, his own aggressive and hateful thoughts before he can develop into a realized man. 

THE KEYS TO THE KINGDOM 

Stealing the key from under his mothers’ pillow seems like the perfect metaphor for a boy’s separation from his mother’s emotional control. Every person needs a certain amount of freedom to advance on the spiritual path. Otherwise, they cannot make their own choices and learn from their mistakes.

Notice the key is beneath a pillow, implying the hidden feminine aspect of his psyche is just as subconscious as the masculine shadow (that hides underwater). The undeveloped female energy is expressed in men as moodiness, depression, and repressed anger. So we can imagine the dire emotional situation of the young parent-less prince, which indicates the nature of his undeveloped male and female energic structure. However, the start of his spiritual quest begins with uncovering his relationship with his mother.

In fact, the most ubiquitous of all motifs in the fairy realm is the “missing parents,” which denotes the death or absence of one or both parents. This tragic circumstance occurs in the greatest number of fairy tales; sometimes the child is an orphan, as Dorothy in the Wizard of Oz, or the mother dies after childbirth, as in Cinderella and Little Snow White. In fact, there are twenty-seven Disney films that feature a missing Mother. Even though the young prince enjoys a mother and father, by following Iron John, he entered the path of individualization, where he must standalone, in the field of suffering, away from the safety of home.

Rebellious activity is a common occurrence around thirteen years old when puberty occurs. It is a period when a young man needs a guide to edge him toward his own path in life, sometimes it can be the father, sometimes more accomplished males. Iron John becomes his substitute father and mentor. Their time together symbolizes the prince’s exploration of every aspect of his own shadowy complex thoughts and actions.

TURNING TO GOLD 

Iron John told the young Prince, “Look, this golden spring is as bright and clear as crystal. You shall sit beside it, and take care that nothing falls into it; otherwise, it will be polluted

By touching the water, the Prince penetrated into the deepest levels of consciousness, beyond all the negative aspects of the shadow. At this height of consciousness, one may see a beautiful Golden light within the mind. This is not a theory but the real experience of the great enlightened masters. i.e. Aurobindo–and Vedic texts are very accurate in describing the highest level of consciousness as golden colored.

I relate water with the flow of Prana or blood or even the flow of thoughts and emotions. Iron John gives the prince the responsibility of keeping the waters clean as this is a metaphor that refers to keeping his mind clear and emotions balanced by meditating.

The prince lets his finger touch the water, and it turns to gold. Yet, Iron John forgives him this one time. Then the prince carelessly lets his hair to fall into the water, transmuting it into a beautiful gold color. Iron John said to the boy prince: “You have failed the test, and you can stay here no longer. Go out into the world. There you will learn what poverty is”…. 

The prince’s banishment mirrors the universal experience of mystics–in that the entrance into higher consciousness (symbolized by the gold) is resisted by the collective materialistic forces of the world. Another example of this idea occurs in the Grail legend; whereas King Arthur finds the legendary land of Camelot, touches the Holy Grail–a trope denoting Samadhi- and is forever in search of the same experience in the outer world of war, death, and sickness. We can also include mankind’s fall from paradise–in that the snake/kundalini gave humanity a taste of immortality, followed by their banishment from the Garden of Eden to suffer death. 

Continuing the story, now on his own the young prince comes upon a far off distant kingdom where he finds work in the kitchen of the reigning King. However, the prince is dismissed, because he acted disrespectfully by serving the king with his hat on, as the prince didn’t want to reveal his golden hair, the gardener takes pity on the boy and hires him as an assistant. 

Then one day, the princess sees the prince working in the courtyard, when his hat falls off, revealing rays of golden light bursting forth like the sun from his hair. From that point on, the princess became obsessed with the boy. The usual courtship occurs; he brings her flowers, and so on. The princess personifies the positive feminine side, the perfect counterpart to the young prince’s inner male. And like so many other tales, the balance of the anima and animus denotes integrating the conscious mind with its subconscious shadow.

BLACK, WHITE, RED, GOLD 

The colors (Black, White, Red, and Gold) strangely appear in fairy tales over and over. For example, in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, her mother’s first words are: “Would that I had a child as white as snow, as red as blood and as black as the wood of the window frame.”

I wrote in my article on Snow White. paraphrasing “The three colors symbolize Snow-White’s evolution into higher consciousness. Let me explain: Most meditators upon closing their eyes see nothing but black. After decades of practice, or even lifetimes, the next level of a successful spiritual practice occurs when the internal Pranic energy illuminates the interior of the brain in a beautiful white light. Even the external world takes on a stunning luster with subtle tones; Gopi Krishna an enlightened Indian pundit has written of this experience in his autobiography. One encounters a beautiful red than gold color along with an enduring sense of immortality, increased health and intelligence. This state of mind, (called enlightenment or self-realization) is symbolized by the color gold, and as found in the golden treasures, harps, hair, and dresses that the child protagonist is gifted with.”

The same three colors appear in Iron John but in reverse order… from gold to black. Which I believe refers to spirit or soul incarnating into matter. 

The colors appear when the King said to his daughter, “I will proclaim a great festival. It shall last for three days, and you shall throw a golden apple. Perhaps the unknown knight will come.”

On learning of the festival, the young prince went out into the woods and called out for Iron John three times.

“What do you need?” he asked. 

“To catch the princess’s golden apple.” 

“It is as good as done,” said Iron John. “And further, you shall have a suit of red armor and ride on a spirited chestnut horse.”

“When the day came, the prince galloped up, took his place among the knights, and was recognized by no one. The princess came forward and threw a golden apple to the knights. He was the only one who caught it, and as soon as he had it, he galloped away.”

“On the second day, Iron John had outfitted him as a white knight, and had given him a white horse.” And the prince caught a golden apple again.

“On the third day, he received from Iron John a suit of black armor and a black horse, and he caught the apple again.”

“It is as good as done,” said Iron John. “And further, you shall have a suit of red armor and ride on a spirited chestnut horse.”

“When the day came, the prince galloped up, took his place among the knights, and was recognized by no one. The princess came forward and threw a golden apple to the knights. He was the only one who caught it, and as soon as he had it, he galloped away.”

“On the second day, Iron John had outfitted him as a white knight, and had given him a white horse.” And the prince caught a golden apple again.

“On the third day, he received from Iron John a suit of black armor and a black horse, and he caught the apple again.”

The three colors, black, white, and red plus gold sometimes, are symbolic of the transformative process. The chronological order of colors proceeds, from black to white then red, showing a progression to a higher plane. However, the order of colors is reversed, starting with the golden apple, changing to a red chestnut horse, then a white horse and a black horse. I believe the reversed order of colors denotes the movement of consciousness downward from its highest spiritual level to the lowest level of physical matter. Thus alluding to the spiritualization of matter. 

THE RULE OF THREE 

There is another important motif, called the ‘rule of three,’ that helps us to understand the meaning of the story. The ‘rule of three’ is a literary technique that suggests a group of three events or actions carries more truth and is more satisfying than any other number, in the story's execution and engaging the reader. Thus, the three consecutive days of the festival authenticates the importance of the marriage of the Princess and Prince, and also the importance of the three transformative colors. 

SACRED MARRIAGE 

Having progressed this far on the psyche’s evolutionary path takes us to the motif of a “sacred marriage.” To achieve the ultimate victory and marry the princess, the young prince must catch the golden apple thrown three consecutive times. This idea derives from the tradition of a wedding where the bride would toss a bouquet into a group of young maidens - whoever caught the flowers would marry next. 

But, why is the apple tossed out? There are ancient myths that link the apple with immortality. In Greek mythology, the Apples of Immortality were made of gold and grew in the Garden of the Hesperides - a wedding gift to Goddess Hera from Gaea. The apples are guarded by the dragon Ladon. In a somewhat similar motif; In the first book of the Bible; Genesis, a serpent guarded the tree of life in the “Garden of Eden,” and offered to give Eve a taste of immortality. 

The apple, or fruit of the tree, is symbolic of all the talents and gifts one achieves by raising their consciousness. Particularly since the “tree” is a visual metaphor referring to the human spine and nervous system. 

It is a jigsaw puzzle to make sense of all these symbols and motifs’, however catching the apple, symbolizes the experience of immortality, through the process of awakening Kundalini. This awakening can only take place when both sides of the psyche are developed enough–i.e. the Ida (female) and Pingala (male). Then the central Sushumna is opened for the flow of Prana to the crown chakra–resulting in the marriage of the individual with the divine – Shiva with Shakti–or the inner male and female. And which is called the sacred marriage in metaphysical texts 

The story continues… While they sat at the wedding feast, the music suddenly stopped, the doors opened, and a proud king came in with a great retinue. He walked up to the youth, embraced him, and said, “I am Iron John. I had been transformed into a wild man by a magic spell, but you have broken the spell. All the treasures that I possess shall belong to you.” 

And last of all, Iron John’s transformation, from a wild man into a human being, alludes to the clearing the unconscious shadow of its faults and negative energies resulting in the self-realization of the psyche or young prince. The search for inner peace of mind and knowledge of the self has always been the most significant factor in understanding mythology and religion. 

Ignoring the ancient’s spiritual beliefs gives western culture a distorted view of human potential. Isn’t it time to wake up?


Summary

1. Iron John, the fairy tale, is based on the psyche or souls path toward, individualization and higher consciousness.

2. The young prince personifies the psyche from the perspective of the male. 

3. Iron John symbolizes the young prince’s shadow, the unexplored aspects of hatred and aggression, anything that hides in the subconscious. 

4. Iron John turns from antagonist to mentor, from a monster to a king which refers to the power on self-knowledge.

5. The princess is the young prince's feminine counterpart; their marriage is symbolic of the merging of opposites within the self.

6. The prince's parents are missing from his life because he must develop his own identity.

7. He leaves his rich kingdom, like so many other heroes, to live a life close to nature away from the royal lifestyle.

8. Once the prince has reached into the depths of his consciousness, (touched the water) he is told to return to the outer world to spread his golden consciousness. 

9. By conquering the king’s enemy’s it shows the young prince is mature enough to marry his perfect counterpart in the princess. 

10. The sacred marriage ends the process and denotes the psyche has reached a permanent state of higher consciousness.


Published 11:11am on 12/5/2018 by author Joseph Alexander  


Grimm’s fairy tale "Iron Hans"


Digitally enhanced Images from Pixabay





  

Friday, September 28, 2018

JACOB’S LADDER and THE RUBAIYAT

                         


 by Bob Turner 



  In Genesis 28:10-13 we read, “Jacob slept and dreamed that there was a ladder set up on the earth, the top of it reaching to Heaven; and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. And the Lord stood beside him …..”

Western religions that generated Jacob’s ladder passage are today perplexed by its meaning, and the art and commentary take the dream literally. Thus in one picture, we see fair-haired youthful angels gliding down and up a stairway with the upper terminus in a blaze of light, an elderly anthropomorphic god sitting near the sleeping young man in another picture, a long tedious ladder with winged beings laboring up and down like ants, etc. Various commenters provide fanciful disparate attempts at interpretation. It is interesting, perhaps entertaining, but no real lesson emerges from the passage, which gets dismissed as a psychic experience of a desperate individual with little relevance to the reader.    

This is because the original understanding of Genesis 28:10-13 has been lost to a literal interpretation of the bible. The author intended to illustrate an exquisite picture of the psyche and its connection to the living Universe. But current western religious philosophy and dogma have atrophied to where the proper context to understand Jacob’s ladder no longer exists. Thus, the beautiful story gets relegated to bizarre nonsense, even fodder for scoffers. Fortunately, the Yogi Tradition and also some areas of Buddhism, reveal a profound and lovely elucidation of Jacob’s ladder allegory, for indeed the passage is a parable which conceals a glorious lesson.

First, some nomenclature and background are necessary. Throughout the human body are located scores of chakras or focal points for astral energy; these chakras are known to Hindu mystics and also to Chinese medicine. Along the spine are six major chakras, the first located at the base of the spine and the sixth at the medulla oblongata (the top of the spine connecting the skull). The seventh chakra (Sahasrara) is located at the top of the head, where cosmic energy (Prana or lifetrons) can flow into or out from the meditator. At conception, the soul entered the tiny embryo through the Sahasrara, and this chakra is a connection with the external universe (God or Heaven). Lifetrons, as with all matter, are condensed Spirit and therefore possessed of intelligence, which automatically responds to the laws of nature. Higher intelligence can direct these lifetrons to its will, which is how life heals itself and how Masters can perform apparent miracles. Meditating yogis will Prana to travel up and down the spine, activating chakras and releasing latent powers, wisdom, and bliss. 

The first (base of the spine) chakra has always been known as the earth chakra; the Sanskrit name for the earth chakra is Muladhara. The Muladhara is in proximity with the crucible of kundalini. Intelligent lifetrons traveling up as kundalini power, or downward from the Sahasrara (or also from the medulla oblongata) activates chakras.

With this background let us review and interpret Jacob’s ladder:“ …. Jacob slept and dreamed that there was a ladder set up on the earth, the top of it reaching to Heaven; and the angels of God were ascending and descending on it. And the Lord stood beside him …..”

The “earth” is the earth chakra (Muladhara) and the “ladder” is clearly the spine. The vertebrae even resemble a ladder with steps. So the ‘ladder (is) set up on the earth’. The top of the spine (ladder) reaches up to the higher centers (Sahasrara), where God sends lifetrons‘ down the ladder’. These intelligent lifetrons (angels) ‘ascend and descend (the ladder)’ responding to the (sometimes conscious) will of the meditator in concert with breath. God-seeking meditation is a communion, during which bliss is prevalent and chakras and the ‘ladder’ are illuminated with astral light (“And the Lord stood beside him). 

So the ladder is not external to the meditating yogi, but internal. In material terms the ladder is about 3 feet long, extending from the base of the spine (earth) to the crown of the head (heaven). Thus the passage is describing the arcane human anatomy and is both relevant and inspiring to the understanding reader. The ancient author of the Genesis passage is describing how to commune directly with God and rapidly advance spiritual evolution. The author clearly understood the timeless perennial philosophy of India, either through direct contact or parallel development of universal truth.

An alternative writing of the parable might read: “The soul who identified as a mortal named Jacob briefly awoke from his lifelong stupor and ephemerally became aware of the tree of life which lay within his body, which allows energy to flow from the (earth) base to the (heaven) crown, and as lifetron energy (angels of God) rises and descends in the spine it activates the chakras, providing awareness of the Living Universal Spirit (God) within. Then the soul again lost self-consciousness and reentered a delusional state (Maya) when ‘Jacob’ awoke to the material world.”

A talented artist could picture a human sitting in meditation, with the spine resembling a ladder (each vertebra being a step on the ladder) running from the first (earth) chakra, at the base of the spine, to the crown chakra at the top of the head. Intelligent lifetrons quanta (angels) that look like sparks would rise and descend along the yogi’s spine, coincident with breath inhalation and exhalation, energizing the various chakras. The yogi would be shown in dark but grand cosmic surroundings, but the ladder (spine and chakras) would glow with the light and power of “the Lord standing beside him”. The light at the crown would be dazzling. 

Manly Hall has also interpreted the metaphor of a "ladder of bones” in his book, Man, The Grand Symbol of the Universe. 

“This ladder of bones played a most important in the religious symbolism of the ancients, where it is often referred to as a winding road or stairway (the straight and narrow way), sometimes as a serpent, and again as a wand or sceptre.”



Omar Khayyam was a Persian Sufi mystic who authored the Rubaiyat, which consists of about 100 quatrains, around the year 1120 AD. The text was overlooked for centuries. Around 1860 the English academician and poet Edward Fitzgerald recognized the great beauty buried in the forgotten manuscripts and translated the Rubaiyat into Victorian prose. It took an eminent poet to recognize the skill and beauty of another great poet. But Fitzgerald, being an atheist, assumed Khayyam was writing about drink and earthly pleasures, flights of fancy, and beauty for its own sake, and dismissed his work as devoid of august spirituality. Fitzgerald was limited by his background (or lack thereof), as are many interpreters of the Jacob’s Ladder passage.

Some 80 years after Fitzgerald’s translation of the Rubaiyat, the God-absorbed Spiritual Master Paramahansa Yogananda encountered the work and immediately recognized a masterpiece from an enlightened yogi. It took one to know one! Yogananda, using divine intuition, analyzed and provided a spiritual interpretation for every quatrain. His book “Wine of the Mystic” is a beautiful work of art and is available from Self-Realization Fellowship (SRF). The interpretation below and glossary are abstracted from “Wine of the Mystic”.

The Jacob’s ladder passage is reminiscent of Rubaiyat quatrain XXXI. 

“Up from Earth’s Center through the Seventh Gate

I rose and on the Throne of Saturn sate;

And many Knots unraveled by the Road

But not the Master-knot of Human Fate”

“Earth’s Center” is defined in Yoga treatises as the Muladhara chakra, located in the coccygeal plexus; the first or lowest spiritual center in the spine. It is the first gate through which the interiorized consciousness and life force have to pass in their upward climb to Spirit in the brain. 

The 'Seventh Gate' is the Sahasrara, the highest Yogic center of divine consciousness and concentrated life force, located in the brain at the top of the head. This center is figuratively spoken in Yoga as the thousand-petaled lotus because the concentrated power of Spirit enthroned here emanates thousands of rays of divine light. 

“I rose”: I lifted my consciousness and life through the six cerebrospinal chakras to the thousand-petaled lotus. “On the throne of Saturn sate”: The “throne” refers to the seat of consciousness and life in man, concentrated in the brain and the subcenters in the spine. “Saturn” here refers to Satan, (the material realm) the negative aspect of the cosmic creative force, which keeps all creation in a state of delusion or seeming separation from God, through the power of Maya, ignorance, and delusion. The ordinary man is ruled by this ignorance and attachment to material existence. But in the state of uplifted divine consciousness, ignorance is dethroned and wisdom rules in its stead.

“Many knots unraveled by the road”: My consciousness passed through all seven cerebrospinal centers, untying in each on the knots of life and consciousness that had bound the soul to the body. Many cosmic mysteries were revealed with the opening of each center.

“Not the knot of human death and fate”: Even with temporary enlightenment, the soul is not permanently free from karma (the effects of one’s past actions or so-called fate), or from the wheel of death and birth, until it has fully overcome delusion and leaves its physical, astral, and causal body encasements and merges in Spirit.

Yogananda’s Spiritual Interpretation continues,

“In deep meditation, I transcended the sensory perceptions of the body and experienced divine realization by lifting my life force and consciousness upward through the yoga chakras, from the earth vibration in the coccyx (Earth’s Center) to the thousand-petaled lotus in the brain (Seventh Gate). King Ignorance, who sat on the throne of consciousness and ruled my life in the body-identified state, was deposed: and I, the all-wise soul, one with Spirit, reigned in his stead.

“Ascending the spinal highway (Jacob’s ladder!), I had unraveled in each of the six lower chakras the knots of life and consciousness that had tied me to the body. Thus, when I entered the seventh center, I was momentarily free in cosmic consciousness.

“But this experience in meditation did not completely liberate me. Because of my karma, the results of my past actions over many lifetimes including this one, I could not escape permanently into Spirit. To sunder the karmic bonds and conquer death forever, I had to first learn by deeper meditation to consciously go in and out of the body at will. This mastery, and the wisdom of divine consciousness it brings, frees the soul permanently from delusion. Then the soul can leave not only the physical body, but the astral and causal encasements swell, and merge in Omnipresent Spirit ~ a fully liberated soul!”

Jacob’s ladder and Quatrain XXXI, from two different traditions and separated by two millennia and thousands of miles, each offers a similar practical application of Yogic Chakra Technology. Without this background, the depth and beauty of each allegory cannot be realized, and the underlying wisdom remains concealed.

Note: Lifetrons defined as a conscious pranic particle of light.








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